Appropriating Ecclesiastes 3, Shorten said there was a season for everything: "It is now a time to heal, a time to build, a time to laugh, a time to embrace, a time to love and now, at last, a time for marriage equality". "And now it is up to us here in the parliament of Australia to get on with it".
Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull urged lawmakers to approve the marriage bill by Christmas.
All amendments were struck down and the bill has passed unchanged from the one that cleared the Senate last week.
While they already considered themselves engaged, the rings they wore on their left hands, he said, were their answers to a question that they once could not ask. "This is a great day, it belongs to every Australian".
Members of the LGBT community fought for the equality of marriage in Australia for decades.
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While marriage equality could become law this week, state marriage registries say they would not have the paperwork to proceed with weddings until January.
"A promise was made by the leaders of this parliament and this promise has not been adequately delivered on", Mr Abbott said.
In 2004, Australia changed its marriage law to interpret marriage is exclusively between a man and a woman.
Fewer than five of 150 MPs voted against the law same-sex marriage.
News.com.au reports that Christian couple Nick and Sarah Jensen have been hedging on their pledge to divorce in the wake of same-sex marriage becoming legal in Australia.
About 12.7 million people participated in the survey, which had a response rate of almost 80% - which is considered very high. According to a survey, 62% of Australians supported the legalization of same-sex marriages.