Ali al-Qahum, an official in the Houthi politbureau, said the missile was in retaliation for what he called "daily massacres" in Yemen by the Saudi-led bloc.
The kingdom's civil aviation authority said flights were unaffected at the King Khalid International Airport, located about 35 kilometers (22 miles) outside the capital.
State television said 'Saudi air Defense intercepts ballistic missile northeast of Riyadh'.
Al Masirah, a TV network run by the Houthi rebels, also claimed responsibility for the attack on their social media account.
This is the first time a Houthi missile has come this close to a heavily populated area, and it appears to be the farthest such a missile has reached inside Saudi Arabia.More news: Facebook, Twitter, Google face aggressive questioning at Senate hearing
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MISSILES have been fired at a major Middle Eastern airport used by thousands of Brits every year, it has been reported.
Riyadh is around 620 miles north of the border with Yemen.
A Saudi military spokesman condemned the attack in a statement, saying the missile was sacked "indiscriminately" toward a populated civilian area.
Earlier today a Saudi-led military coalition said on Saturday an air strike that hit a market in Yemen's northern Saadah province was a legitimate military target, the Saudi news agency reported. Iran denies it has provided material support, though it acknowledges its political support of the Houthis.
Iran is ideologically aligned with the Houthis and Saudi Arabia and other Sunni states in the region accuse it of supplying it with cash and weapons.